a). A，B，C，… and other Xs
b). X，such Y as A，B，C，…
i. Reading，writing，listening and other academic subjects could be learned from books，or primarily from books.
ii. Some knowledge，such academic subjects as reading，writing，listening，could be learned from books，or primarily from books.
iii. It is of great importance for people to read imaginative literature，such as poetry，novels or mythology.
iv. It is of great importance for people to read novels and other types of imaginative literature such as poetry and mythology.
2.名词性成分并列： n. + what/how/whether/if…
a). what=something that
b). how=the way/manner in which
i. Most parents educate their children merely by instinct rather than proper
pedagogy，and usually do not care about their relationship with children and how much neglect influences the future development of their children.
ii. Most students are eager to obtain knowledge，but they lack the sense of
what is good，or what is necessary and how much a deficiency in the concept of viewing the situation as a whole would mislead them.
iii. My fellow Americans，ask not what your country can do for you，ask what
you can do for your country. My fellow citizen of the world，ask not what
American will do for you，but what together we can do for the freedom of man. (John Kennedy)
a). a1 and a2+n
d). a1，a2，so a3 that/as to…
i. a small town à a small and peaceful town
a good teacher à a good and very impressive teacher
a stupid decision à a stupid and incorrigible decision
ii. a simple yet effective method
a direct and simple yet magically effective method
an irrational yet understandable decision
a fair and balance，yet undesirable decision
an obvious yet not the most significant reason
iii. Most students can hardly stand for his typically dry and dull lectures
that would normally continue at least several quarters without giving any essential information.
iv. The impact that technology has had on our daily life and society in
general，is undeniable. It will become even greater as computers get
faster，smaller，smarter，and so inexpensive that virtually everyone will be able to own one.
v. A class led by a lethargic teacher could be extremely dull，and so boring that drives everybody in the class into sleep.
vi. Learning in essence is a process that is time-consuming，painstaking， and
so hard that virtually only persistent few can finally have a sense of real achievement.
a). ad1 and ad2+n
d). ad1，ad2，so ad3 that/as to…
i. A conscientious teacher always prepares his lecture carefully，
intelligently，and with the full consideration of all possible aspects concerning the subject.
ii. Apart from energizing the athletes， physical strength helps them plough
into the games enthusiastically and with confidence and even act as a deterrent force to their rivals to some extent.
i. An absent-minded teacher lacks drive to make class intensely focused，
often preparing nothing in advance，wandering among random topics， thus wasting and killing times of industrial students.
ii. As a result of this， food dealers have made huge profit from it， thereby promoting the sector as well as creating more jobs.
a). …， and therefore/thus/consequently
b). not only/simply/merely…but also/…as well/even…
d). not that…but that…
i. Books keep records of thoughts and ideas， and are therefore the major source from which people obtain knowledge.
ii. Chinese children unfortunately have few rights to make their own
decisions， and consequently often have to do things that they do not enjoy doing at all.
iii. Modern vehicles have extended the range of people’s activity， and thus made much more goods available to local markets.
iv. Computers have not only brought convenience， but they have also made people learn more.
v. Not that emails or telephones have made people less personal， but that
people themselves have become less personal. One of several possible reasons is that people usually lack of adequate communicating skills.
vi. However， sports salaries are not determined by considering the
contribution to society a person makes， or the level of responsibility he or she holds.